Yah'shua, the woman/the Isha & the man/the Ish and how they relate to one another

Word Study
Strong's # 5828 (Hebrew = ezer) aid: -- help
Strong's Root = # 5826 (Hebrew = azar) azar = prime root: to surround, ie, protect or aid: help, succour
Gesenius adds that the primary idea lies in girding, surrounding, hence defending
(Hebrew = kenegdo) corresponding to, counterpart to, equal to matching
The traditional teaching for the woman as help (meet) is that of assistant or helper subservient to the one being helped. This definition would appear to line up with Strong's definition of the word. However, if you look at the context of every other use of the word ezer in the scripture, you will see that ezer refers to either God or military allies. In all other cases the one giving the help is superior to the one receiving the help. Adding kenegdo (meet) modifies the meaning to that of equal rather than superior status. Scripture is so awesome. God says just what He means.

Dr. Susan Hyatt gives the following definition from her book In the Spirit We're Equal "Re: Hebrew ezer kenegdo. In Genesis 2:18, the word "helpmeet" does not occur. The Hebrew expression ezer kenegdo appears, meaning "one who is the same as the other and who surrounds, protects, aids, helps, supports." There is no indication of inferiority or of a secondary position in an hierarchical separation of the male and female "spheres" of responsibility, authority, or social position.

The word ezer is used twice in the Old Testament to refer to the female and 14 times to refer to God. For example, in the Psalms when David says, "The Lord is my Helper," he uses the word ezer."

Word Study
"Desire" or "Turning as used in Genesis 3:16
"Re: Hebrew teshuqa. Our English Bibles translate this word as "desire" in Genesis 3:16, implying lust on the part of the woman. However, the Septuagint, a Greek translation of the Old Testament translates the word as "turning."

The true meaning of teshuqa is, in fact, "turning" with no implication whatsoever of "desire" or "lust." Granted, these can be motives for "turning"! What this passage (Genesis 3:16) is saying is this:
Eve is turning away from God toward the male, putting him between herself and God. God is warning Eve that this turning away toward the man will result in her coming under the domination of the male.
All of the best ancient versions of the Old Testament render teshuqa with the idea of "turning." The distortion of the meaning of this passage arose through the influence of the Talmud, a compilation of the traditions of the Jews. The teaching, that God cursed all women through Eve, comes not from the original Hebrew version of Genesis 3:16, but from the Babylonian Talmud, which, in fact, teaches 10 curses of womanhood. The 5th curse is, "Thy desire shall be toward thy husband."

This distortion was first introduced by Jerome through the Latin Vulgate translation of the Bible in A.D. 382. A valid rendering of Genesis 3:16 is:
"A snare has increased your sorrow and sighing. In sorrow you shall bear sons/children. You will turn toward your husband and he will rule over you."
The above material is taken from In the Spirit We're Equal by Dr. Susan C. Hyatt. To purchase the book e-mail Dr. Hyatt at drsuehyatt@aol.com An excellent discussion of the mistranslation is found in God's Word to Women by Katherine Bushnell beginning in Lesson 13. To read that discussion, click here.
Word Study
Submit = Greek huptoasso. Better translated "to identify with" -- "to be in support of"
Recent scholarship has made clear the understanding the people to whom these letters were written would have of hupotasso, the word translated submit. It is critical that the Biblical meaning of the word become the standard and that we rid ourselves of inaccurate and misleading understanding through faulty translation. Indeed the English word “submit” is properly translated by hupeiko, with dative “submit to”.

The New Testament word hupotasso is a common word meaning to be in support of and was used of attached/appended (supporting) documents in the postal system.
In the context of biblical relationships between men and women, the best meaning of hupotasso is "to identify with or support" (This is an incredibly strong and all-encompassing thought.) It has nothing to do with being subordinate to, secondary to, or subject to. The correct meaning is especially important and clear when considered against the cultural backdrop, that is to say, when it is understood in the light of the marriage customs and the culture of the people to whom Paul was writing.
(See Bauer's Greek-English Lexicon; Dr. S. Hyatt, In the Spirit We're Equal, 255-59; Edwin Stewart, Submission and Headship: Our Ridiculous Interpretation, and Drs. E. & S. Hyatt, Who's the Boss?
Word Study
Man -- Re: Hebrew adam & Greek anthropos.
The story in Genesis 1 & 2 concludes with the account of the creation of adam, which the Septuagint translates with the Greek word anthropos. This is significant because the Hebrew word for man as male is ish and the Greek word for man as male is andros. The words used here (adam and anthropos) are gender inclusive and literally mean "person" or "human." Genesis 1 & 2 refer to the creation of the human species, not to man as male

The translation of the words adam and anthropos as man and the references made with the pronouns he, him, his etc. make it difficult for this generation to understand that the scripture is not speaking to males but the all human beings.

Word Study
"RIB" as used in Genesis 2:21-22
Rib - Strong # 6763 (Hebrew = tslea) Normally translated as side, corner, chamber or flank not rib
We wonder why would translators choose to translate a word as rib since Young's Analytical Concordance shows that the other 41 times it it used it is translated as side, corner, chambers or flank. It seems unimportant until one realizes that the blood and water came from the side of the second Adam and by His death, we live.
In God's Word to Women Katharine Bushnell says that the originator of the "rib" theory was Rabbi Joshua, who wrote, "God deliberated from what member He would create woman, and He reasoned within Himself thus: I must not create her from Adam's head, for she would be a proud person, and hold her head high. If I create her from the eye, then she will wish to pry into things; if from the ear, then she will wish to hear all things; if from the mouth she will talk much; if from the heart, she will envy people; if from the head, she will desire to make all things; if from the feet, she will be a gadabout. Therefore, I will create her from the member which is hid, that is the rib, which is not even seen when man is naked." (1)
We can thank Charles Trombley for stating the case, as follows, in his book Who Said Women Can't Teach. "The Bible says God made her from man's side, but Jewish fables said she was made from his rib."

It's amazing how theologians take one simple verse and work it over until any semblance of the original truth is gone. But that's the story of religious confusion, each theorist telling the world what God really meant since He couldn't, wouldn't or didn't say what He meant and didn't mean what He said. Why did Rabbi Joshua substitute the word "rib" for the "side" knowing it was an incorrect translation? Apparently to strengthen the low opinion most rabbis had of women and to justify masculine insecurities built upon the false premise that woman and not man was responsible for sin and death." (2)

1 Katharine Bushnell, God's Word to Women, (1923; privately reprinted by Ray Munson, N. Collins, NY), para. 43.
2 Charles Trombley, Who Said Women Can't Teach? (South Plainfield, NJ: Bridge Publishing Inc., 1985), p. 71.

Word Study
"CONCEPTION" as used in Genesis 3:16
It is not possible to use the usual Word Study format for this page since we are not sure just how the word spelled HRN, [ HRN ]in the Hebrew should be translated. However, the following information brings grave doubt that it should have been translated as conception.

Conception in the Hebrew is spelled HRJWN [HRJWN]in Ruth 4:13 and Hosea 9:1. two letters shorter than the word found in Genesis 3:16. It should be noted that the J in HRJWN [ HRJWN ]is a root consonant and as such it can not be omitted. So how can one say that HRJWN [ HRJWN ]and HRN [ HRN ] are the same word?

The Septuagint, the Old Testament translated into Greek by Hebrew scholars renders the word HRN [ HRN ]as sighing. The Septuagint was the version of scripture quoted by Christ and the Apostles. There is a great deal of difference in telling Eve that as a consequence of her actions her sighing would increase, and telling her that God has chosen to punish her by multiplying her ability to conceive.

We cannot be sure what the translation of HRN [ HRN ] should be. However, it is unlikely that conception should be considered among the possibilities. (1)
1 For a deeper understanding of the difficulty in translating this word see lessons 1, 2 and 14 in Katherine Bushnell's God's Word to Women.

The Head of the Epistles
This chapter was written by Berkeley and Alvera Mickelsen, professors at Bethel Theological Seminary in St. Paul, MN. It originally appeared as an article in Christianity Today, Feb. 20, 1981, and is used by permission. All Scripture quotations are from the Revised Standard Version, unless otherwise indicated.
What did the apostle Paul mean when he wrote, "For the husband is the head of the wife as Christ is the head of the church, his body" (Eph. 5:23)? And, "The head of every man is Christ, and the head of the woman is man, and the head of Christ is God" (I Cor. 1 1:3)?

Discussion about the biblical role for men in church, society, and home is based on these verses. The meaning of these verses rests largely on the meaning of the Greek word kephale, translated "head" in the New Testament.

One possible way the word "head" is used today means leader, chief, or director. We say, "He is the head of his company," or, "He is the department head." In husband-wife and male-female relations this idea popularly carries over to suggestions of authority. The husband is said to be the boss of the family. Before we accept that idea, we must ask what the Greek word kephale (head) meant to Paul and his readers.
To find the answer, we must first ask whether "head" in ancient Greek normally meant "superior to" or "one having authority." In the first half of this article, we will introduce three kinds of evidence:
1. Lexicographers Liddel, Scott, Jones, and McKenzie (A Greek-English Lexicon, ninth edition, Clarendon Press, 1940, a really comprehensive Greek lexicon) gives no evidence of such a meaning.

2. The Septuagint translators took pains to use different words than "head" (kephale) when the Hebrew word for head implied "superior to" or "authority over."

3. In his commonly used lexicon (A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Early Christian Literature, William Arndt and F. Wilbur Gingrich, eds., U. of Chicago Press, 1957/ 1979), Walter Bauer gives little or no salient support for such meaning outside of his personal interpretation of five Pauline passages in the New Testament.
In the second half of the article, we will answer the fundamental question: If "head" does not normally mean "superior to" or "authority over," what does it mean in those seven New Testament passages where Paul uses it figuratively?

First, what about the differences in the lexicons? One of the most complete Greek lexicons (covering Homeric, classic, and koine Greek) is the work by Liddell, Scott, Jones, and McKenzie. It is based on examination of thousands of Greek writings from the period of Homer (about 1000 B.C.) to about A.D. 600, which, of course, includes New Testament times. Significantly, for our purposes here, it does not include "final authority,” ”superior rank,” or anything similar to meanings of kephale. Apparently ordinary readers of Greek literature would not think of such meanings when they read "head."

However, another commonly used lexicon is the koine Greek lexicon by Arndt and Gingrich (usually called Bauer's). It does list "superior rank" as a possible meaning for kephale. It lists five passages in the New Testament where the compiler thinks kephale has this meaning. As support for this meaning New Testament times, the lexicon lists two passages from the Greek translation of the Old Testament, the Septuagint, where kephale implies leadership or authority.

Those who support Bauer's view that kephale meant superior rank" point to these passages in the Greek translation the Old Testament as evidence that this meaning of kephale is familiar to Greek-speaking people in New Testament times.

However, the facts do not support that argument. About 180 times in the Old Testament, the Hebrew word ro'sh (head) is used with the idea of chief, leader, superior rank (similar to the way English- speaking people use "head"). However those who translated the Hebrew Old Testament into Greek (between 250 and 150 B.C.) rarely used kephale (head) when the Hebrew word for head carried this idea of leader, chief, or authority. They usually used the Greek word archon, meaning leader, ruler, or commander. They also used other words. In only 17 places (out of 180) did they use kephale, although that would have been the simplest way to translate it. Five of those 17 have variant readings, and another 4 involve a head-tail metaphor , that would make no sense without the use of head in contrast to tail. That leaves only 8 instances (out of 180 times) when the Septuagint translators clearly chose to use kephale for ro’sh when it had a "superior rank” meaning. Most are in relatively obscure places.

Since kephale is so rarely used when ro’sh carried the idea of authority, most of the Greek translators apparently realized that kephale did not carry the same “leader” or “superior rank” meaning for “head” as did the Hebrew word ro’sh.

There are seven passages in the New Testament where Paul uses kephale in some figurative sense. The concept of a hierarchy, with men in a role of authority over women (at least over their wives) rests largely on two of these: I Corinthians 11:3 and Ephesians 5:23. When Paul used kephale in these two passages, was he thinking of one of the usual Greek meanings of head, or a common figurative Hebrew meaning?

Paul knew both Hebrew and Greek. Although he was a Pharisee who knew Hebrew well, he grew up in Tarsus, a Greek-speaking city. Greek was his native tongue. In all the passages where he used kephale, he was writing to Greek-speaking people in cities where most Christians were converts from Greek religions. Their contact with the Old Testament would be limited to hearing parts of the Septuagint read in their services. They might go to church for years without ever hearing those eight relatively obscure places in the Greek Old Testament where kephale seemed to have a different meaning from the usual meanings in their own language.

Since Paul was Greek-speaking Jew, he would likely write to Greek-speaking Christians using Greek words with Greek meanings they would easily understand.

If "head" in Greek did not normally mean "supreme over" or "authority over," what did it mean in those seven New Testament passages where Paul used it figuratively? Careful examination of context shows that common Greek meanings not only make good sense, but present a more exalted Christ.
1. Colossians 1:18 (context 1:14-20); kephale means “exalted originator and completer." "He (Christ) is the head of the body, the church; he is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead, that in everything he might be preeminent." Paul seems to be using kephale with common Greek meanings--"source or beginning or completion" (Liddell, Scott, et al.)--in a sense that Christ is the exalted originator and completer of the church. Bauer does not list this passage among those where kephale means "superior rank."

2. Colossians 2:19 (context 2:16-19); kephale means "source of life." Christ is the source of life who nourishes the church. Christians are told to hold fast to Christ, who is described as the "head," from whom the whole body, nourished and knit together through its joints and ligaments, grows with a growth that is from God. Bauer agrees that in this passage kephale does not mean "superior rank."

3. Ephesians 4:15 (context 4:11-16) is very similar to Colossians 2:19. It reads, "We are to grow up in every way into him who is the head, into Christ, from whom the whole body, joined and knit together by every joint with which it is supplied, when each part is working properly, makes bodily growth and upbuilds itself in love." This passage stresses the unity of head and body, and presents Christ as the nourisher and source of growth. Bauer classifies kephale here as meaning “superior rank,” although he does not see that meaning in the very similar Colossians 2:19.

4. 1 Corinthians 11:3 (context 11:2-16); kephale seems to carry the Greek concept of head as "source, base, or derivation." "Now I want you to realize that the head of every man is Christ, and the head of the woman is man, and the head of Christ is God" (NIV). In this passage Paul is discussing how men and women should pray and prophesy in public church meetings. His instructions apparently relate to the customs, dress, and lifestyle in Corinth and the tendency of the Corinthian believers to be disorderly. Paul discusses women's and men's head coverings and hair styles. {Veils are not mentioned in the Greek text.) Paul says, "man was not made from woman, but woman from man" (v. 8), he also says, "woman was made from man" (v. 12). This suggests that Paul used "head" in verse 3 with the meaning of "source or origin." Man was the "source or beginning" of woman in the sense that woman was made from the side of Adam. Christ was the one through whom all creation came (I Cor. 8:6b). God is from God”}

When we recognize one Greek meaning of kephale as a source or origin, as Paul explains in verses 8 and 12, then verse 3 does not seem to teach a chain of command. Paul's word order also shows he was not thinking of chain of command: Christ, head of man; man, head of woman; God, head of Christ. Those who make it a chain of command must rearrange Paul's words. In fact, Paul seems to go out of his way to show that he was not imputing authority to males when he said, “For as woman was made from man, so man is now born of woman. And all things are from God.” (1 Cor 11:12)

5. Ephesians 5:23 (context 5:18-23); "head" is used in a head-body metaphor to show the unity of husband and wife and of Christ and the church. "For the husband is head of the wife as Christ is the head of the church, his body." Paul often used the head-body metaphor to stress the unity of Christ and the church. In fact, this unity forms the context for this passage. The head and body in nature are dependent on each other.
This verse follows Paul's explanation of what it means to be filled with the Holy Spirit. His last instruction is, "Be subject to one another out of reverence for Christ" (v. 21). This is addressed to all Christians and obviously includes husbands and wives. Naturally, as part of this mutual submission of all Christians to each other, wives are to submit to their husbands.
The Greek word "submit 'or "be subject to" does not appear in verse 22. It says only, "wives to your husbands." The verb supplied must therefore refer to the same kind of submission demanded of all Christians in verse 21.
To stress the oneness of husband and wife, Paul then returns to his favorite head-body metaphor: "For the husband is the head (kephale) of the wife as Christ is the head (kephale) of the church, his body."
Paul develops his head-body metaphor at length in I Corinthians 12:22-27. If he thought of "head" as the part of the body that had authority over the rest of it, would not that meaning appear in this long passage?
We know that the brain controls the body. But Paul did not use that concept in his metaphor. He refers to the ears, eyes, and nose; the head as a whole is mentioned only in verse 21: "The eye cannot say to the hand, I have no need of you,’ nor again the head to the feet, I have no need of you.' " Paul taught here the unity and mutual dependence of all parts on each other: "If one member suffers, all suffer together, if one member is honored, all rejoice together" (v. 26). There is no suggestion that the head has authority over other parts of the body.

Christ does have authority over the church (Matt. 16:18). But most of the passages that deal with Christ as the head of the church do not point to his authority over the church, but rather the oneness of Christ and the church. In Ephesians 5:18-33, this oneness is applied to husband and wife.

If we are to see a meaning in “head” in Ephesians 5:23 beyond the head-body metaphor of mutual dependence and unity, we must do so on the basis of the immediate context. Christ’s headship of the church is described like this: “Christ loved the church and gave himself up for her” (v. 25). Christ gave himself up to enable the church to become all that it is meant to be—holy and without blemish.

As Christ is the enabler (the one who brings to completion) of the church, so the husband is to enable (bring to completion) all that his wife is meant to be. The husband is to nourish and cherish his wife as he does his own body, even as Christ nourishes and cherishes the church (v. 29).

The concept of sacrificial self-giving so that a spouse can achieve full potential has been the role that society has traditionally given to the wife. Here Paul gives it to the husband. Of course, giving oneself sacrificially for the other is an excellent example of the submission wives and husbands are to have toward each other (v. 21).

6. Ephesians 1:20-23 (context 1:13-23); kephale means "top or crown." Paul presents an exalted picture of Christ and his authority over everything in creation: ". . . when he raised him from the dead and made him sit at his right hand in the heavenly places, far above all rule and authority and power and dominion, and above every name that is named, not only in this age, but also in that which is to come; and he has put all things under his feet and has made him the head over all things for the church, which is his body, the fullness of him who fills all in all." The authority of Christ, established in verses 20-21, is extended to every extremity from crown (head) to feet--including the church which is his body.

7. Colossians 2:10 (context 2:8-15); kephale again seems to have the Greek idea of life-source, as well as the idea of top or crown. This verse emphasizes the church as the "fullness" of Christ. "For in him the whole fullness of deity dwells bodily, and you have come to fullness of life in him, who is the head of all rule and authority” (vv. 9-10).

Paul uses two metaphors here--the head-body metaphor, with the church coming to "fullness of life" in Christ (the life-source, nourisher, enabler), and also the concept of top or crown when he speaks of Christ as the head of all rule and authority. In these two passages, "top" or "crown" emphasize Christ's position by virtue of the cross and resurrection. He is the victor, and is crowned with glory and honor (Heb. 2:9; Ps. 8:5).
These are the only passages in the New Testament where kephale is used figuratively. They include the five given by Bauer as examples of kephale meaning “superior rank,” despite the fact that such meaning for kephale does not appear in the secular Greek of New Testament times. If Paul had been thinking about authority, or leader, there were easily understood Greek words he could have used, and which he did use in other places. He used exousia (authority) in Romans 13:1-2; and archon Romans 13:3.

The passages where Paul used kephale in a figurative way make better sense and present a more exalted, completed view of Christ when kephale is read with recognized Greek meanings that would have been familiar to his original readers. Among these meanings are: exalted originator and completor, source, base, derivation; enabler (one who brings to completion): source of life; top or crown.

Can we legitimately read an English or Hebrew meaning into the word “head” in the New Testament, when both context and secular Greek literature of New Testament times seem to indicate that “superior rank” or: "authority over" were not meanings that Greeks associated with the word, and probably were not the meanings the apostle Paul had in mind? Has our misunderstanding of some of these passages been used to support the concept of male dominance that has ruled most pagan and secular societies since the beginning of recorded history? Has this misunderstanding also robbed us of the richer, more exalted picture of Christ that Paul was trying to give us?
Word Study
Authority as found in 1 Timothy 2:12
"Re: authentein in 1Timothy 2:12. This word is found only in this one place in the New Testament and refers to someone who claims to be the author or originator of something or someone. Paul is countering the early gnostic teaching of creation which portrayed Eve as the one who instructed Adam and gave him life. According to this strange doctrine, since Eve was the authentein of the human race, her daughters were also to be considered the authentein of their generations, supposedly giving them a priority or primacy over men in all of life. Dr. Susan Hyatt In the Spirit We're Equal."

Paul is not saying that all women for all time should not have authority (in the way that we understand the word) over any male. Our definition of authority used in this scripture would contradict the endorsement for leadership that Paul gives to Pricilla, Phoebe and many other women who were leaders for both men and women in the early church. A leadership based on the gifting of the Spirit and not on gender.
See Scripture Study on 1 Timothy 2:12
Word Study
Virtuous = Strong's #2428 (chayil) wealth, virtue, valor, strength

Gesenius' #2428 strength, power, might, valor, ability, uprightness, integrity
#2342 #6 to be strong or firm; verbs that have the significance of binding or twisting, are applied to strength.

Syriac Text = strong, powerful, virile

Ruth 3:11 "All the city of my people know that thou art a virtuous (chayil) woman". Could she possibly have been called a woman of might, power or valor?

Proverbs 31:10 "Who can find a virtuous woman? For her price is far above rubies."

Virtuous does not represent the teaching of the original text. It should be noted that the only time the word is translated virtuous is when it refers to women. This appears to be a deliberate move by translators to impose their concept of what a woman should be upon the text.

Bushnell #632: to sum up this Hebrew word chayil, which is used over 200 times in the Hebrew Bible, we see in every instance where it relates to women, and nowhere else, is it translated "virtue," i.e. chastity.

Scripture Study Articles The Meaning of Head by Dr. Kluane Spake. The traditional interpretation of headship in the English language means that man has authority over the woman. Is this true and if not, why not ? In an excellent article Dr. Kluane Spake traces the origins of the traditional position on headship and reveals the flaws and unbiblical nature of such teaching.
Patriarchy or Gender Equality? The Letter to the Ephesians on Submission, Headship, and Slavery by Dr. Carrie A. Miles Is religion responsible for patriarchy or can its roots be found in economic necessity? Is Paul patriarchal or did early Christianity actually repudiate patriarchy? Carrie Miles answers these questions in this fascinating article. Don't miss it!
What About Submission and Headship by Joanne Krupp. Joanne has been in ministry to women since 1971. Here she addresses one of the most important and misunderstood New Testament passages dealing with husbands and wives -- Ephesians 5:21-33. This article is a rare occasion when one sees Ephesian 5:22-33 written in its proper context.
In the Beginning . . . by Karen K. Davidenko. Karen submitted this article on Genesis to a blog. When we saw it we thought it would be a fine word for the newsletter and a great addition to the website. Enjoy!
Genesis 3 The Temptation and Fall by Pat Joyce. Understanding Genesis 3 is critical for all Christians. This scripture study concentrates on the areas where errors in translation and/or interpretation have fostered faulty doctrine and unscriptural traditions.
Women in the New Testament: A Middle Eastern Cultural View by Dr. Kenneth Bailey. Dr. Bailey has kindly given permission for us to offer his article, "Women in the New Testament: A Middle Eastern Cultural View." This article was written in 1995. The truth about God's view of women is not new, it has been clearly stated over and over. Dr. Bailey, a renowned theologian, shows through careful consideration of scripture that biblically there is no ground for discrimination against women. It is amazing, that in the church, the tradition remains so prevalent.
The Evangelical Debate over Biblical "Headship" by Dr. David M. Scholer. In this scholarly article, Dr Scholer provides a synopsis of the debate over biblical headship. Much of the Christian literature in the past five years on domestic violence and sexual abuse of women, especially evangelical publications, contains pointed discussions of the relationship between biblical teachings of "male headship" and the reality of abused and battered women. Included are studies on kephale and authentein on the precise points upon which the so-called headship debate rests.
One Flesh by Leslie Johnson with Gary Johnson. Here's Chapter 5 of the Johnsons' book , Does God Really Prefer Men? An Open Letter to the Church in America. The subject of Christian marriage is rarely addressed , even in books on gender equality. The Johnsons have done a fine job. Want to know what God thinks about marriage? Read this article!! Their book, Does God Really Prefer Men? is available from Amazon.com , BooksAMillion.com, Barnes&Noble.com and many more outlets.
Another Look At Eve by Jane McNally. Mother Eve gets a bad rap. But is it justified? Traditional Jewish and Christian interpretations of the early chapters of Genesis have led to the heaviest blame often falling on Eve for the entrance of sin and death into the world. Faulty interpretations of many Bible texts concerning women foster the low status, oppression, and abuse of women the world around, which is one of the greatest social evils.
Women Arising Now by Chuck Pierce. This article is Chapter Nine of his book The Future War of the Church. In this is a prophetic word for women, he proclaims that "despite the enemy's efforts to oppress and seduce women, we are about to see women of the Church arise and influence the world in a way they have never done before!"
Did Jepthah Kill His Daughter for a Burnt Offering or Not? by Francine Err. The debate continues as to whether or not Jephthah sacrificed his daughter as a burnt offering. Since even Bible scholars are divided on the question, it is hard to find the answer. This article lays out the facts and let's you make up your own mind. Excellent and informative!!!

Did Paul Really Say, "Let Women Keep Silent in the Churches?" by Dennis J. Preato. This article provides objective evidence that verses 34-35 of 1st Corinthians 14 do not represent the inspired writings of the Apostle Paul or any other inspired writer. We are grateful to Dennis for sending us his excellent work on behalf of women.

The Silence That Shouts by Pamela Walford. This article challenges the traditional view that God is noncommittal and neutral about the atrocities against women in the book of Judges. She has written a truly penetrating article on the Book of Judges.

Junia, A Woman Apostle by Dianne. D. McDonald. This outstanding article presents a clear and easy to read case for Junia as an apostle who was woman. She includes Romans 16:7, with numerical references to Strong's Concordance for easy reference, followed by an explanation of critical words.
Covet to Prophesy by Katharine C. Bushnell. A rare copy of the booklet was sent to us by Ruth Hoppin the author of Priscilla's Letter. From Genesis to Paul, Bushnell takes on tradition stating "There is no middle ground safe for the Church. She should either silence women altogether in every activity that would make her voice heard in the Church as a teacher or preacher, or else give a tardy assent to the truth of Paul’s sweeping assertion that “there can be no male and female” distinctions as to call and privilege that the Church is authorized to make, or can make, without mischief to the body of believers. Covet to Prophesy is a real find. Enjoy!

The Badge of Guilt and Shame by Katharine Bushnell. Another rare booklet by Bushnell. This one takes on the head covering dialog from 1 Corinthians 11. Bushnell contends that the church must not teach one thing and do another but must prove the scripture. She says, "Therefore, a fresh deeper investigation into the Apostle’s utterances is urgently needed, ... that the church may conserve its own interests while at the same time maintaining a consistent course of conduct. The church must give no uncertain sound in both example and teaching and in its proclamation of the Word of God as supreme in authority."

The Vashti-Esther Story by Katharine Bushnell. Would you think it possible to write an article on the book of Esther without focusing on the time spent in preparation for presentation to the king? Here it is. A rare gem preserved for our day, the article is timely truth revealing the heart of God. This is the only writing by Bushnell that we have been able to find besides God's Word to Women. If any of you have access to more of her material, please contact us. We would like to see whatever is left of her work preserved.

Jesus Was A Feminist by Leonard Swidler. This article concludes that our Lord, Jesus, was a feminist. He defines feminist as “a person who is in favor of, and who promotes, the equality of women with men, a person who advocates and practices treating women primarily as human persons (as men are so treated) and willingly contravenes social customs in so acting.”

Jesus Friend of Women - by Dr. Susan C. Hyatt. Jesus lived in "a man's world," yet He often went against the norms of patriarchal culture by treating women as persons equal with men. In general, we miss this when we read the Gospels and we fail to grasp the radical nature of Jesus' actions. This article is from Susan's book In the Spirit We're Equal. It is available by emailing Susan at drsuehyatt@aol.com

The Son Re-expressing the Father's Heart Towards Women by Dee Alei. This is Chapter 7 of her book From Bondage to Blessing. Jesus continually broke with the traditions, religious law and attitudes of the time regarding women. In this chapter we see how He continually affirmed women, honoring them, encouraging them in their faith, giving them dignity, equality, value and lifting them up to the men as positive examples. After reading this you may want to order the whole book. To do so, click here.

Who's the Boss? by Drs. Eddie & Susan Hyatt. The article gives 3 reasons why Ephesians 5:21-33 is not about authority in marriage. It is a brief summation of the arguments presented in the Hyatts' new book by the same name.

A Challenge for Proponents of Female Subordination To Prove Their Case from The Bible by Dr. Gilbert Bilezikian. Dr. Bilezikian issues a challenge to prompt Christians to grapple with biblical facts rather than to accept traditional assumptions about female roles. This article is a "must read."

Ancient Heresies and a Strange Greek Verb by Catherine C. Kroeger. Dr. Kroeger helps clear the mystery of the passage in 1 Timothy 2:12-14 that seems to say that Paul forbids women to teach or have authority over men while in other places he has mentioned with approval their teaching and leadership.
The Head in the Epistles by Berkeley and Alvera Mickelsen. What did the apostle Paul mean when he wrote, "For the husband is the head of the wife as Christ is the head of the church, his body" (Eph. 5:23)? And, "The head of every man is Christ, and the head of the woman is man, and the head of Christ is God" (I Cor. 11:3)? This classic article challenges traditional interpretation of the word "head" in these scriptures!

The Glory of the Lord is Upon You by Carole Scott. This prophetic message, "Get Up Daughters, The Glory Of The Lord Is Upon You!" was birthed in that vision and is empowered with an anointing prayer for women of all ages.

The Challenges of Intimacy by Richard Barnor. This is chapter five of Divine Intimacy—An Invitation to Passionate Love. Richard stirs up the reader to recognize that Adam and Eve's condition of nakedness didn't need to bring shame because it speaks of intimacy. Because Adam and Eve initially possessed God's unconditional love, transparency--the ability to be the real you--was the result.

Did Paul Really Teach About Women, What We Were Told that He Taught? - by Mary Seltzer.
Breakthrough News for Women by David Fees. The article challenges the traditional interpretation of scriptures concerning the role of women in God's plan and in the church.

Priscilla and Phoebe show us about Paul by David Fees. A careful look at the writing of Paul concerning Priscilla and Phoebe reveal about Paul’s beliefs about the function and place of women.
Covering, A Covenant Word by Gay Anderson was presented in our Fall 2000 newsletter. This article looks at the scriptural origin of covering and how God intends it to function in our lives.

Jezebel Spirit Unmasked– by Gay Anderson. The Summer 2001 newsletter article contests both the validity of the term Jezebel spirit and the use of this term against women in ministry.

Who is the Priest in the Home? – by Barbara Collins. Done for the Fall 2001 newsletter Barbara exposes the error and consequences of this unbiblical doctrine.

God's Gals -- by Gerald McCray. We (Barbara, Gay and Pat of God's Word to Women) are pleased to be able to put up Chapter 11 from God's Gals by Gerald McCray. Gerald contacted us a few years ago asking permission to use our website as a resource, a real complement. He also wanted to use some of the articles by Kathryn and Richard Riss, so we put him in contact with Kathryn who wound up editing his book. We are delighted that he mentions our friendship on his acknowledgements page. The book is making an impact. God's Gals can be purchased from your local Christian bookstore or ordered from either www.barnesandnoble.com or www.amazon.com
A Woman's Place by Bernadine Tillman. This article is the introduction and first chapter of the book A Woman's Place which contains incites and experiences from two years of a Bible study based on God's Word to Women. This book offers a fresh bold view and is a testimony to God's faithfulness to those who seek truth.

Helen Barrett Montgomery's Centenary Translation of the New Testament Characteristics and Influences by Dr. Sharyn Dowd. The purpose of this article is to call attention to Helen Barrett Montgomery's translation of the New Testament into contemporary English, published in 1924. While Montgomery credits many male sources other interpretations which appear to have been borrowed from Katharine Bushnell are not credited. This paper examines the evidence that Katharine Bushnell was a probable source. Dr. Dowd’s notes will be of particular interest to those doing research on women’s issues.

We are Witnesses to a Mystery by Ruth Hoppin. The first chapter and a paragraph from the ending of the book entitled "Charge to the Jury," is taken from the book Priscilla's Letter, Finding the Author of the Epistle to the Hebrews which is written as a fascinating trial where the evidence is laid out before a jury. The book was taken out of print after only a few months of availability. Circumstances suggest deliberate suppression due to the influence of those who regard the concept of female authorship of the Epistle to the Hebrews intolerable. Fascinating!

Journey's End by Kathryn Riss. This is the conclusion of her book by the same name. The "serpent's seed" has attacked God's daughters long enough. It's time for the truth to set them free! We hope that you will be so refreshed, challenged and inspired by this thought-provoking article that you will want the get the book.

I truly hope this article will be an eye opener and a breath/ruach of fresh air, for all who reads it. Yah Bless, Love & Mercy always

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